3D Autostereoscopic Imaging and its Application in Image-guided Surgery.
Novel Medical Autostereoscopic Image: Integral Videography
A novel 3D medical autostereoscopic image called “integral videography” (IV) (Liao et al., JSCAS 2000) for medical image displaying and image-guided minimally invasive surgery were developed (Liao et al., MICCAI 2001-2004). IV records and reproduces 3-D images using a micro convex lens array and flat display. Compared with conventional 3D displaying techniques, IV can provide geometrically accurate 3D spatial images and reproduces motion parallax without using any supplementary eye glasses or tracking devices. Because IV projects a 3D image into space, it has advantages over the traditional stereoscopic method, whereby different images are displayed for the viewer’s left and right eyes.
Surgical Navigation by Autostereoscopic Image Overlay of Integral Videography
An autostereoscopic image-overlay technique was developed and integrated into a surgical navigation system for superimposing a 3D image onto a patient via a half-silvered mirror (Liao et al., IEEE TITB 2004). The use of semi-transparent display devices makes it appear that the 3-D image is inside the patient's body. This is the first report of an autostereoscopic display based image-overlay system in the field of surgical navigation. Feasibility studies on target showed that the intuitive 3D viewing provided by the augmented reality of the IV image system increases surgical-instrument placement accuracy and reduces procedure time (Liao et al., IEEE TBME 2010). Furthermore, a laser guidance and 3D autostereoscopic image-overlay system for precision-guided surgery (Liao et al., CMIG 2009) and an augmented reality navigation system with automatic marker-free image registration for dental surgery (Wang et al., IEEE TBME 2014) were also developed.